Unethical informed consent caused by overlooking poorly measured nocebo effects

Unethical informed consent caused by overlooking poorly measured nocebo effects
J. Howick
Journal of Medical Ethics, 16 February 2020
Open Access
Abstract
Unlike its friendly cousin the placebo effect, the nocebo effect (the effect of expecting a negative outcome) has been almost ignored. Epistemic and ethical confusions related to its existence have gone all but unnoticed. Contrary to what is often asserted, adverse events following from taking placebo interventions are not necessarily nocebo effects; they could have arisen due to natural history. Meanwhile, ethical informed consent (in clinical trials and clinical practice) has centred almost exclusively on the need to share intervention risks with patients to preserve their autonomy. Researchers have failed to consider the harm caused by the way in which such risk information is shared. In this paper, I argue that the magnitude of nocebo effects must be measured using control groups consisting of untreated patients. And, because the nocebo effect can produce harm, the principle of non-maleficence must be taken into account alongside the principle of autonomy when obtaining (ethical) informed consent.

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