Informed consent in phase I clinical trials: Implications for trends in design

Informed consent in phase I clinical trials: Implications for trends in design
Care Delivery and Regulatory Policy
Paul Henry Frankel, Susan G. Groshen
Journal of Clinical Oncology, 25 May 2020; 38(15) supplement e14077
Abstract
Background: Informed Consent (IC) is a critical aspect of human subjects protection. Institutional Review Boards are tasked with insuring proper IC as one aspect of protecting participants in clinical trials. Phase I trials in oncology present special issues with IC, as often neither the risks nor the benefits are well-known. This has resulted in carefully worded IC templates for Phase I studies based on the traditional use of dose-finding designs that are geared towards finding the “Maximum Tolerated Dose (MTD)”. As the definition of this term varies by study, the implication for patient risk and informed consent are rarely discussed. Methods: We reviewed Phase I designs to present options for improving the informed consent process for Phase I oncology trials. Results: Phase I studies have seen an increase in designs based on work from the early 1990s seeking a dose that results in a targeted percent of patients experiencing a “Dose Limiting Toxicity (DLT)” to define the MTD. The most common definition of a DLT is a treatment-related toxicity that results in a particularly concerning severe toxicity (grade 3 or higher) in the first cycle of therapy and the most common rate targeted (in designs that define toxicity as a goal) is 25%. In that setting, while lower doses may have a lower likelihood of DLT, higher doses or the expansion cohort are likely to have a 25% chance of DLT if the target is pursued. This information is rarely quantitatively communicated in the informed consent. Conclusions: IRBs and investigators should consider communicating through informed consent the quantitative summary of goals of the study and related risk. For example, transparency suggests conveying when the goal (target) of the study is to find the dose where there is a one in four chance of experiencing a severe adverse event in the first cycle.

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